Can newborn brains perform one-shot learning? To address this question, we reared newborn chicks in strictly controlled environments containing a single view of a single object, then tested their object recognition performance across 24 uniformly-spaced viewpoints. We found that chicks can build view-invariant object representations from a single view of an object: a case of one-shot learning in newborn brains. Chicks can also build the same view-invariant object representation from different views of an object, showing that newborn brains converge on common object representations from different sets of sensory inputs. Finally, by rearing chicks with larger numbers of object views, we found that chicks develop enhanced recognition for familiar views. These results illuminate the earliest stages of object recognition, revealing (1) powerful one-shot learning that builds invariant object representations from the first views of an object and (2) view-based learning that enriches object representations, producing enhanced recognition for familiar views.